What is development?
Development is the rise of a nation to meet the West and other developed countries as an economic equal based on the managerial and entrepreneurial leadership of its own indigenous people, as China is doing—Human Rethink
What is underdevelopment?
Underdevelopment is a permanent shortage of the competent managerial leadership needed for development. While higher education imparts technical skills to graduates, it does not impart the competitive managerial and entrepreneurial leadership ability to raise productivity and create jobs for the type of prosperity seen in developed countries. Developing countries have to import competent managerial leadership in scarce numbers. They will languish in underdevelopment and its symptoms until the managerial shortage is addressed—Human Rethink
The source of effective management
Higher education has proven effective for imparting the technical training or explicit knowledge needed for development. But it is obviously not effective for training the managers and supervisors of development. Otherwise, developing countries would be developed by now because many of their people have obtained contemporary higher education. Technical ability has little value without the managerial leadership to productively deploy and supervise it.
Effective management, entrepreneurship, and innovation all come from implicit knowledge of development that is passively acquired in the culture of developed countries. Unlike explicit knowledge, implicit knowledge is not directly taught and has always been missing in formal education. Higher education hasn’t created effective managerial leadership in developing countries because their cultures are different from the cultures of developed countries. So, no matter how much education their people receive, an Implicit Knowledge Gap remains.—Human Rethink
The Implicit Curriculum of the economic model and of higher education.
The Implicit Curriculum of Higher Education closes the Implicit Knowledge Gap by connecting technical or explicit knowledge of development with implicit knowledge. Managerial performance between developing and developed countries is thereby equalized. Higher education is built on the assumption that implicit knowledge already exists in the student. That is usually true for students from the cultures of developed countries. But it is not true for many other cultures. As a result, the graduates of higher education from developing countries do not perform managerial and entrepreneurial tasks as well as those in developed countries or as well as expatriates from developed countries.—Human Rethink
Total Factor Productivity and development
Although more specific that Adam Smith’s “invisible hand,” the concept of TFP (Total Factor Productivity) marks the boundary of what is objectively known about the difference between development and underdevelopment, beyond which redundant speculations begin. To be useful, any answer to the TFP puzzle must translate into a means for equalizing productivity differences between developed and developing countries. This is one way of viewing the problem addressed by the Implicit Curriculum—Human Rethink