Why countries are rich and poor
Implicit Knowledge of Economic Model
Education for Development
Unmasking Implicit Knowledge
The Implicit Curriculum
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What is development? 

Development is the rise of a nation to meet the West and other developed countries as an economic equal based on the managerial and entrepreneurial leadership of its own indigenous people, as China is doing—Human Rethink

What is underdevelopment?

Underdevelopment is a permanent shortage of competent managerial leadership needed for development. While higher education imparts technical skills to graduates, it has not imparted the competitive managerial and entrepreneurial leadership ability that will raise productivity and create jobs for the type of prosperity seen in developed countries.  Developing countries have to import competent managerial leadership in scarce numbers. Underdevelopment endures because of a dire shortage of effective managerial  leadership—Human Rethink

Why is higher education ineffective for development?

Higher education is assumed to be the incubator of the managerial leadership needed for development. But while it has proven useful for imparting the technical knowledge of development, higher education has been ineffective for training the managers, supervisors, and entrepreneurs of development. Otherwise, developing countries would be developed by now. After all, many of their people have obtained contemporary higher education either at home or from developed countries. 

Since nothing is wrong with the people of developing countries, higher education is ineffective because something is wrong with it. The behaviors labeled as effective management, or entrepreneurship, or innovation cannot be consistently expressed with technical knowledge alone. Such expressions require the use of implicit knowledge, which is not taught in school because it cannot be directly taught. But with or without formal education, the cultures of developed countries passively supply their people with the foundation of implicit knowledge needed to effectively deploy technical knowledge for development. Due to cultural difference, the implicit knowledge of development is not available to developing countries no matter how much education their people receive. An Implicit Knowledge Gap remains—Human Rethink

The Implicit Curriculum of Higher Education

While implicit knowledge is not directly teachable, the Implicit Curriculum imparts it indirectly, powerfully, and effectively. Using the resources of higher education, the Implicit Curriculum systematically connects the explicit knowledge of development with implicit knowledge to close the Implicit Knowledge Gap for every graduate of the curriculum. Managerial performance between developing and developed countries is thereby equalized and real development can finally begin. This is the promise of higher education for developing countries that has not been keptHuman Rethink

The Inclusive Theory of Change

The Implicit Curriculum, along with the Inclusive Theory of Change derived from it, constitute a higher-order paradigm that is proven true by the performance of graduates in the real world as effective managers, entrepreneurs, and innovators. In contrast, conventional explanations have served to only explain the status quo. They include biological, moral, statistical, psychological, mathematical, and economic explanations. Compared to the Implicit Curriculum, conventional explanations are ineffective placeholders that have failed to make development happen. They have failed because they do not challenge the narrative of ‘higher education for development’ in developing countries and, instead, divert attention away from ineffective education by citing causes that ultimately hold developing countries responsible for their plight—Human Rethink

Development and Total Factor Productivity

Although more specific that Adam Smith’s “invisible hand,” the concept of TFP (Total Factor Productivity) marks the boundary of what is objectively known about the difference between development and underdevelopment, beyond which redundant speculations begin. To be useful, any answer to the TFP puzzle must translate into a means for equalizing productivity differences between developed and developing countries. The Implicit Curriculum does that—Human Rethink

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