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Why countries are rich and poor
Implicit Knowledge of Economic Model
Education for Development
Unmasking Implicit Knowledge
The Implicit Curriculum
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Addressing the Wealth and Poverty of Nations

The economic model of the Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century. This model introduced machine manufacturing and modern industry to serve human needs. But the Industrial Revolution was a lot more than technology. It was the introduction of a new language. A language driven by the same human capacity used for speaking and writing.

Ever since that time, economic development has separated nations in our world. Nations in the West and a few in Asia (China included) now express the language of the economic model fluently. As a result, they have enjoyed continuous economic development.  while the majority of humanity has lagged behind and have lived in persistent underdevelopment. There has been no means for them to learn the language required to operate the industrial revolution with success.  That is the SINGULAR reason why some countries are rich and most are poor.

The countries that are fluent in the language of the economic model, developed countries, do not see their own development in the way we present it here. As a result, they do not have a way for even their own people to deliberately acquire the language of the economic model. Instead, some believe they are developed because they have superior intelligence or because they hold superior moral values.

But Human Rethink sees it that way. When compared with developing countries, developed countries consistently interpret the economic model correctly and respond with expressions that create results measurable as effective management, administration, entrepreneurship, and innovation that sustain and propagate development. Maintaining such vigilance on a permanent, ongoing  basis is too demanding to be a matter of conscious will. Instead, it has to be an unconscious process acquired in their culture. The only other human phenomenon that comes close to that is the use of language.

The language of the economic model is not taught in formal education. So, it must be acquired passively in the cultures of developed countries. That is why the economic model has not been thought of in that way, and the reason why conventional education is not enough to impart the language to others and developing countries continue to accumulate large numbers of higher education graduates while underdevelopment and its symptoms remain persistent. 

We believe the ability to express the economic model fluently is based on the human ability to use language. Human beings of every race and in every nation already use language. So, people everywhere meet the basic requirement for expressing the economic model fluently. But because cultures are different, there has been no means for developing countries to passively acquire the language of the economic model regardless of the quality of conventional education they receive. 

For developing countries, education that does not impart the language of the economic model amounts to technical training, good only for getting a job. It does not impart competency in the managerial, administrative, and entrepreneurial abilities needed to create good, enduring jobs in the economy and to maintain and improve infrastructure or to operate social institutions efficiently.

Human Rethink has come up with a way for developing countries to integrate the language of the economic model with their existing ability to use language. This new way of learning is called The Implicit Curriculum of Higher Edition.  With our solution, persistent underdevelopment in our world and its symptoms of economic stagnation, instability, and poverty can become a thing of the past. 

The hard work has been done. All that remains is to adopt the Implicit Curriculum. That is why this website exists and why the Human Rethink Podcast exists. We ask that you join us to make this happen.

What is Development?

What is development & Underdevelopment?

Development is the rise of a nation to meet the West and other developed countries as an economic equal based on the managerial and entrepreneurial leadership of its own indigenous people, as China is doing—Human Rethink Underdevelopment is a permanent shortage of the effective managerial leadership needed for development because such leadership is not imparted by the only known means for doing so, which is higher education.  While higher education imparts technical skills to graduates, it has not imparted the competitive managerial and entrepreneurial leadership ability that will raise productivity and create jobs for the type of prosperity seen in developed countries.  So, developing countries have to import competent managerial leadership (expatriates) from developed countries in scarce numbers. Underdevelopment is persistent because of a dire shortage of effective managerial leadership that cannot be remedied with any known method, until now—Human Rethink

Why is higher education ineffective for development?

The term “higher education for development” suggests that higher education is the incubator of the managerial leadership needed for development. But while it has proven useful for imparting the technical knowledge of development, it has been ineffective for training the managers, supervisors, and entrepreneurs of development. That’s because higher education does not impart the language of the economic model, which is indispensable for the effective expression of the model. Otherwise, developing countries would be developed by now. After all, many of their people have obtained contemporary higher education either at home or from developed countries.  So, nothing is wrong with the people of developing countries, and higher education is ineffective for development because it is missing the component that is most important for developing countries. Higher education may impart technical knowledge. But the autonomous behaviors labeled as management, administration, or entrepreneurship are too complex and contingent to be effectively expressed with technical knowledge alone. Such expressions can be successfully made on a consistent basis only under the direction of the same ability that makes spoken language possible. Such training is not supplied by conventional education at any level, including the best quality of higher education.  On the other hand, the cultures of developed countries passively integrate the economic model with the language ability of the members of that culture. But due to cultural difference, developing countries have no means to acquire the language of the economic model no matter how much education their people receive. That is the problem the Implicit Curriculum addresses—Human Rethink

The Implicit Curriculum of Higher Education


Colonialism imposed the technical aspects of the economic model of the West on post-colonial countries. But it could not impose the foreign language of the economic model because developed countries never perceived their economic power in that way. As mentioned, the economic model of the industrial revolution which began in the 18th century was more than technology. It also introduced a language that even its most fluent users, till this day, do not know that they’re using because they passively acquire it in their culture. There has not been a way for people from other cultures to acquire this language. That is the singular cause of persistent underdevelopment in the global south.

Learning to fluently use a foreign or second language means that the second language has been integrated with the human ability that enabled the use of the first language. But a foreign language can’t be directly taught. Competence in a foreign language can only be acquired [1]. So, the Implicit Curriculum (IC) does not attempt to directly teach the foreign language of the economic model either.

Instead, the language of the economic model is imparted to students by the Implicit Curriculum in the same way that a person acquires a foreign language. According to Stephen Krashen, competence in a foreign language emerges in the student through the provision of a large amount of “comprehensible input,” which is input about the use of the language that is understood by the student. As that happens, the existing ability of the student to use their primary language automatically supplies the grammar that is required to interpret the foreign language. With a steady supply of comprehensible input, acquisition of the language becomes “inevitable, unavoidable, and cannot be prevented” [1].

The Implicit Curriculum uses the same process to impart the language of the economic model. 

Persistent underdevelopment shows that the professional training of higher education is of little value for indigenous development, since all it seems to do is teach technical skills only. The technical skills required for development are abundant in developing countries already. So, the Implicit Curriculum is a replacement for undergraduate education in its entirety. Graduates of the IC will competently manage and administer technical knowledge in the same way that expatriates from the global north  sit at the top of the food chain in developing countries.

Because of its cognitive demands, the same qualifications needed to enroll in higher education are needed to enroll in the IC. In the program, the student must render executive level decisions on dozens of controversial real-world situations that add up to the same amount of learning credits required for an undergraduate degree over a 4-year period. In the literature review for each topic, the student will discover the concepts and policies behind each controversy, and their history. These are the basic inputs supplied by the IC. 

In 5 simultaneous research projects per semester, and under faculty supervision, the student of the IC will organize, analyze, and synthesize input from his or her own library research about controversial topics in the economic model of a developed country for the purpose of resolving them. The literature review, analyses, and conclusions for each topic are then presented in writing to demonstrate  that the components of the topic are understood and that the solution is logically and morally well reasoned. 

There’s nothing strange about this process and there’s already a name for it. It’s called the controversy-centered capstone (CCC). According to the Association of American Colleges & Universities, the capstone is the crown jewel of liberal higher education[2]. And they’re not shy about heaping praise on its cognitive benefits, interdisciplinary learning, and coherent  knowledge integration. But the capstone is currently only a single course in the final year of undergraduate education. A single dose is of no value for imparting the language of the economic model because it is too weak and meagre. The IC accomplishes the best intentions of the liberal curriculum in a manner that higher education has only promised to developing countries by replacing all  other jewels in the crown with capstone jewels. And in the manner of the trivium and quadrivium of the Europe of old, technical training that is stripped of the liberal arts becomes optional specialization after graduation in the IC. Such optional training will thereby take a shorter time to complete than is currently the case.

Also, supervision of IC courses is to be conducted by faculty in higher education institutions in developed countries. That’s because the measure of economic success for a developing country is the standard seen in developed countries. The IC is about results, not politics. Learning is made local with  Enrichment Classes. 

By these means, the student discovers the details and complexities of the economic model in a quantity that isn’t provided by conventional education. Through research, analyses, argument, and written presentations, these inputs will be comprehended to expand, correct, and reinforce what the student knows about how the world works and how it could work.  With time, these rigorous exercises will train the student to decipher modular cognitive patterns and regularities (or grammar) for how to use the economic model in his or her own unique way for effective contingent expression. Over 4 years, so much “comprehensible input” from so many areas of the economic model will take place that the integration of explicit knowledge of the economic model with the existing ability of the student to use language is “inevitable, unavoidable, and cannot be prevented.” Yes, in the same way that a foreign spoken language is acquired.

The mechanism of spoken language is not fully understood and has been the subject of endless controversy at least since Noam Chomsky introduced the field of modern linguistics. Likewise, the mechanism of the language of the economic model in the mind is equally speculative. But it’s clear that the concepts and content of the economic model are more numerous, varied, dispersed, and more subtle than those of a spoken language. Only the governance of our language ability can automatically organize and manage such complexity for coherent expression. The economic model cannot be reliably expressed on a continuous basis with technical knowledge alone. Which is what developing countries have tried to do and failed. Nobody can do that. The success of developed countries show that they’re language-faculty-driven economiesThe IC is the way for developing countries to become as efficient, so they too can escape persistent underdevelopment and middle-incomeHuman Rethink

[1] Stephen D. Krashen, The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications (New York: Longman Press, 1985): 80.

[2] Association of American Colleges & Universities. “Capstones & Signature Work.” Accessed Sep 21, 2019.

The Inclusive Theory of Change

The Implicit Curriculum, along with the Inclusive Theory of Change derived from it, constitute a higher-order paradigm that is proven true by the performance of graduates in the real world as effective managers, entrepreneurs, and innovators. In contrast, conventional explanations have served to only explain the status quo. They include biological, moral, statistical, psychological, mathematical, and economic explanations. Compared to the Implicit Curriculum, conventional explanations are ineffective placeholders that have failed to make development happen. They have failed because they do not challenge the narrative of ‘higher education for development’ in developing countries and, instead, divert attention away from ineffective education by citing causes that ultimately hold developing countries responsible for their plight. Moreover, conventional explanations cannot be falsified—Human Rethink

Development and Total Factor Productivity

Although more specific that Adam Smith’s “invisible hand,” the concept of TFP (Total Factor Productivity) marks the boundary of what is objectively known about the difference between development and underdevelopment, beyond which redundant speculations begin. To be useful, any answer to the TFP puzzle must translate into a means for equalizing productivity differences between developed and developing countries. The Implicit Curriculum does that—Human Rethink

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